During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power of the Habsburg Monarchy and Venetian Republic increased, while that of the Ottoman Empire declined.
- Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterised as the Scientific revolution.
- Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England in 1603.
- The Thirty Years' War in Europe (1618 - 1648).
- James I of England institutes the baronetage as a means of raising money.
- Scottish and English Protestants sent to colonize Ireland, as reaction to Catholicism there.
- The English Civil War (1642 - 1651).
- The Manchu conquer the Chinese Ming Dynasty and begin the Qing Dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, in 1644.
- The Dutch republic known as the United Provinces became the dominant economic and political power in Europe, gaining formal independence from Spain in 1648. It also underwent crashes, e.g. the windhandel in tulips led to many bankruptcies in 1637.
- The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602, embarking on colonial expansion based on shareholdership rather than royal control. Dutch merchant ships sail all over the world, leading to the "Golden Age of the Dutch Republic".
- The Deluge (1648 - 1667): series of wars and civil wars in Poland with Sweden, Russia, Brandenburg and Transylvania which caused Poland to lose power status and began rise of Russia to power status.
- The Great Turkish war is fought between the Ottoman Empire and a Holy League formed to oppose it, lasts between 1683 and 1699. It started with another Battle of Vienna and ended with a major defeat of the Ottomans.
- The Russo-Turkish Wars start.
Five overall largest mass killings of the 17th century
Note that the numbers given here are estimations
- Manchu conquest of China, 25 million deaths
- Thirty Years War, 7.5 million deaths
- Time of Troubles in Russia, 5 million deaths
- Mughal Empire, conquest of Deccan, 2.6 million deaths
- English Civil War, 850.000 deaths
see also 
- William Shakespeare, English author and poet (1564 - 1616).
- Henry Purcell, English composer (1659 - 1695).
- Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Spanish Author (1574 - 1616)
- John Milton, English Author and Poet (1608 - 1674)
- RenÃ© Descartes, French philosopher and mathematician (1596 - 1650).
- Galileo Galilei, Italian scientist (1564 - 1642).
- Gottfried Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (1646 - 1716).
- Isaac Newton, English physicist and mathematician (1642 - 1727).
- Blaise Pascal, French theologian, mathematician and physicist (1623 - 1662).
- Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (1588 - 1679).
- Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England (1599 - 1658).
- Sir Thomas Browne, English author,philosopher and scientist (1605-1682).
- Queen Christina of Sweden, high profile catholic convert, matron of arts (1626 - 1689).
- John Locke, English philosopher (1632 - 1704).
- Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher (1632 - 1677).
- Christiaan Huygens, Dutch mathematician, physicist and astronomer (1629 - 1695).
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Calculus is invented and used to formulate classical mechanics.
- Cannon and gunpowder technology refined.
- First measurement of the speed of light, 1676.
Decades and years
af:17de eeu ca:Segle XVII cs:17. stoletÃ da:17. Ã¥rhundrede de:17. Jahrhundert et:17. sajand es:Siglo XVII eo:17-a jarcento fr:XVIIe siÃ¨cle fy:17e ieu he:המאה ה-17 hr:17. stoljeće io:17ma yar-cento it:XVII secolo ko:17세기 lb:17. Joerhonnert nl:17e eeuw ja:17世紀 no:17. Ã¥rhundre pl:XVII wiek pt:SÃ©culo XVII ro:Secolul XVII ru:XVII век sl:17. stoletje fi:1600-luku sv:1600-talet tr:17. yüzyıl uk:17 століття wa:17inme sieke zh:17世纪