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For alternate meanings, see Belgium (disambiguation). Belgian redirects here. For the horse breed commonly used as a draft horse, see Belgian.

Koninkrijk België
Royaume de Belgique
Königreich Belgien
Flag of  Belgium Belgium: Coat of Arms
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: L'French_language" title ="French language">French)
Eendracht maakt macht (Dutch)
Einigkeit gibt Stärke (German)
(Translation: Strength lies in unity)
Location of  Belgium
Official language Dutch, French, German
Capital Brussels
(Brussel / Bruxelles / Brüssel)
Largest city Brussels
Albert II
Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 136th
30,510 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 77th
 - Total (2003)
 - GDP/head
Ranked 18th
248 billion USD
24,019 USD
Currency Euro ¹ (EUR)
Time zone UTC +1 (DST: +2)
 - Declared
 - Recognised
From the Netherlands
National anthem Brabançonne
Internet TLD .be
Calling code +32
(1) Prior to 1999: Belgian franc

The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: België, French: Belgique, German: Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. Belgium is at a cultural crossroad between Germanic Europe, with Dutch speakers in the North, the Flemings, and German speakers in the East, and Romance Europe, with French speakers in the South, the Walloons. This cultural and linguistic diversity is reflected in its complex institutions and political history.



Main article: History of Belgium

Geographically and culturally, Belgium is at the crossroads of Europe, and during the past 2,000 years has witnessed a constant ebb and flow of different races and cultures. Consequently, Belgium is one of Europe'Melting_pot" title ="Melting pot">melting pots with Celtic, Roman, and Germanic cultures having made an imprint, and later on in history, French, Dutch, Spanish, and Austrian influences.

The earliest named inhabitants of Belgium were the Belgae. They were (mostly) Celtic tribes, living in northern Gaul and overcome by Julius Caesar in 54 BC, as described in his chronicle De Bello Gallico. In this same work Julius Caesar referred to the Belgae as "...the bravest of all Gauls" (orum omnium fortissimi sunt belgae). After the Roman Empire collapsed (5th century), Germanic tribes invaded the Roman province of "Gallia". One of these people, the Franks, finally installed a new kingdom under the rulers of the Merovingian Dynasty. Clovis was the most famous of these kings: he converted to Christianity and ruled from northern France, but his empire included today'Ireland" title ="Ireland">Irish monks, preached Christianity and started conversion work under the pagan invaders. The Merovingians were rather short-lived, as the Carolingian Dynasty took over: after Charles Martel countered the Moorish invasion from Spain (732 - Poitiers), their famous king Charlemagne brought a huge part of Europe under his rulership and was crowned as the "Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" by the pope himself (800).

European Feudalism became the base for military, political and economical stability. Christianity flourished under the protection of these rulers and by the founding of religious communities and monasteries, churches and pilgrimages.

The region was later associated with the Netherlands, under Burgundian then Spanish rule, until the Protestant provinces took their independence (see Netherlands). Then followed Austrian rule, and a few years of French rule under Napoleon. After Napoleon'1815" title ="1815">1815, Belgium was reunited with the northern provinces in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands until the Belgian Revolution in 1830, which established an independent Belgian state. The Belgian revolution was initiated by the French-speaking minority who controlled the factories and other economical resources and who didn'Flanders" title ="Flanders">Flemish culture was subsequently severely suppressed.

The royal palace in Brussels served as the residence of the royal family from its construction in 1830 till 1935. It now serves as the office of the king and the residence of the crown prince.
The royal palace in Brussels served as the residence of the royal family from its construction in 1830 till 1935. It now serves as the office of the king and the residence of the crown prince.

The Belgian King, Leopold I, was chosen with the assistance of the British. This king was chosen after the first choice of the Belgians refused his appointment. The country'Germany" title ="Germany">Germany invaded Belgium as part of the Schlieffen Plan. The British decision to honour their treaty obligations, as much as the entente cordiale with France, forced them into the First World War. After a period of alliance with France after the First World War, Belgium tried to return to neutrality in the 1930s, but was once again invaded by Germany in 1940. After World War II, the policy of neutrality was abandoned, and Belgium joined NATO. It was also one of the founding members of the European Economic Community.

Belgium possessed one primary foreign colony during its history: the Congo, which was given to King Leopold II in the Conference of Berlin in 1885. He made the land his private property and called it the 'Congo_Free_State" title ="Congo Free State">Congo Free State'Rubber" title ="Rubber">rubber, a growing market with the developement of rubber tyres. In 1908, the international pressure against the cruelties of King Leopold became so great that Leopold II was forced to give his property to the Belgian state as a colony. From then on, it became Belgian Congo, before gaining independence from Belgium in 1960.

Belgium'Rwanda" title ="Rwanda">Rwanda and Burundi were mandated to Belgium by the League of Nations. Belgian policy in the administration and socio-cultural development of these countries has been heavily criticised, many seeing Belgian decisions as contributing significantly to the troubles in Rwanda in the 1990s when a genocide took place, with an estimated 1 million casualties.

Since the 20th century, the history of Belgium became more and more dominated by the increasing autonomy of its two main communities, the Dutch- and the French-speakers. As an indication of this, since around 1970, there are no significant national Belgian political parties anymore, but only Flemish- or French-speaking parties (and one German-speaking party). The regular attempts to re-establish national, Belgian parties end up below 1% of the electorate; the Brussels parties either never got started (as with the 'Blauwe Leeuwen' and 'Rode Leeuwen' for the Flemings in Brussels), or got merged into one of the French-speaking liberal parties (such as the French-speaking FDF, which however has had a significant influence for years, and still keeps some independence). As such, the political landscape shows a near-perfect dual political system, reflecting the two underlying dominant communities.


Main article: Politics of Belgium

Belgium'Flemings" title ="Flemings">Flemings, and their political parties; and the French-speakers, and their parties.

Since the country'Politics_of_Belgium" title ="Politics of Belgium">governmental entities; apart from the Federal Government there is a subdivision according to language into Communities, with the French(-speaking) Community, the Flemish Community and the German-speaking Community, and another subdivision into Regions: the Walloon Region, the Flemish Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. The Flemish Community and the Flemish Region have been joined together to form one government, see Flanders.

Behind these complex institutions, one notes the two dominant components of the Belgian state: the Flemings and their political institutions under the Flemish government; and the French-speakers, grouped under the French(-speaking) Community and its more fragmented institutions. All political parties in Belgium belong to one of these two communities, except for a German-speaking party and some smaller parties in Brussels. However, these only attract votes from one of the two communities in Brussels. Thus, there are no national parties active over all the Belgian territory. In short, the Belgian political landscape carefully mirrors the dual nature of Belgian society.


  • Federal government: Jurisdiction over Foreign affairs, development aid, defence/Military, police, economy, social welfare, security (incl. pensions, health care, social aid and employment controls), transport (incl. railways and air transport), energy, telecommunications, scientific research (partially), limited competencies in education and culture, as well as strict control over taxation by regional authorities; the federal government controls more then 90% of all taxation.
  • Community governments: Language, culture and education. (e.g. Schools, Libraries, Theatre, etc.)
  • Regional governments: Land and property based issues within their area (regional economy, zoning, housing, transportation, etc.), international trade.

For example, a school building in Brussels belonging to the public school system would be regulated by the regional government of Brussels. The school as an institution however would fall under the regulations of either the Flemish government, if the primary language of teaching is Dutch, or the French Community government, if the primary language is French. It is a complex, somewhat unstable and expensive, but peaceful compromise that allows distinctly different cultures to live together.

Communities, regions & provinces

Main article: Communities, regions and provinces of Belgium

Belgium is divided into three communities, the Flemish community, the French-speaking community and the German-speaking community, and in three regions: Brussels (mainly Dutch- and French-speaking, with a population of 980,000), Flanders (mainly Dutch-speaking, with a population of 6,000,000), and Wallonia (mainly French-speaking, with a population of 3,360,000). The later two regions are each divided into 5 provinces.

Belgium is composed of the 5 northern Dutch-speaking provinces of Flanders, the 5 southern French-speaking provinces of Wallonia and the Capital Region of Brussels.
Belgium is composed of the 5 northern Dutch-speaking provinces of Flanders, the 5 southern French-speaking provinces of Wallonia and the Capital Region of Brussels.

Between brackets is the local name of each province, in either French or Dutch:

  1. Flanders (Dutch speaking; Vlaanderen in Dutch, Flandre or Flandres in French):
  2. Wallonia (French speaking; Wallonie in French, Wallonië in Dutch):
  3. The Brussels-Capital Region (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale in French, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest in Dutch, Die Region Brüssel-Hauptstadt in German).

Each provincial entity (including the Brussels-Capital Region) is further divided into smaller municipalities, called gemeenten in Dutch and communes in French (see List of Belgian municipalities and List of Belgian municipalities by population).

The main cities and their population are Brussels (959,318), Antwerp (445,570), Ghent (224,685), Charleroi (200,233), and Liège (184,550).


Main articles: Geography of Belgium, Extreme points of Belgium

 Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liege and Namur are the six largest cities of Belgium, with populations above 100,000.
Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liege and Namur are the six largest cities of Belgium, with populations above 100,000.

Belgium has an area of 30,510 km². Belgium has three main physical regions: the coastal plain (located in the northwest), the central plateau, and the Ardennes uplands (located in the southeast).

The coastal plain consists mainly of sand dunes and polders. Polders are areas of land, close to or below sea level, that have been reclaimed from the sea from which they are protected by dikes, or, further inland, fields that have been drained by canals.

The second physical region, the central plateau, lies further inland. This is a smooth, slowly rising area which has many fertile valleys and is irrigated by many waterways. Here one can also find rougher land, including caves and small gorges.

The third physical region (called the Ardennes) is somewhat more rugged than the first two. It is a thickly forested plateau, very rocky and not very good for farming, which extends into northern France. This is where much of Belgium'Wildlife" title ="Wildlife">wildlife can be found.

The two main rivers in Belgium are the Scheldt and the Meuse. Although generally flat, the terrain becomes increasingly hilly and forested in the southeast (Ardennes) region, where one can find Belgium'Signal_de_Botrange" title ="Signal de Botrange">Signal de Botrange at only 694 metres.

The climate is cool, temperate, and rainy; summer temperatures average 25°C / 77°F, winters average 7.2°C / 45°F. Annual extremes (rarely attained) are -12.2°C / 10°F and 32.2°C / 90°F.


Main article: Economy of Belgium

Densely populated Belgium is located at the heart of one of the world'Industrial_Revolution" title ="Industrial Revolution">industrial revolution on the continent of Europe in the early 1800s, Belgium developed an excellent transportation infrastructure of ports, canals, railways, and highways to integrate its industry with that of its neighbours. One of the founding members of the European Union, Belgium strongly supports deepening the powers of the EU to integrate European economies. Belgium was one of the first countries to adopt the euro, the single European currency, in January 1999 and the Belgian franc was completely replaced by euro coins and banknotes in early 2002.

Belgium is sometimes called "The heart of Europe". This is not only because of its geographical location, but also due to many international institutions having their headquarters in Brussels, such as NATO and the European Union. This, in its turn, is because it has an excellent transportation system. It has a modern and toll-free road system, is connected to the European railway system, and Antwerp is the second largest European port.

The economy in Belgium greatly depends on its imports and exports. Its main imports are: food products, machinery, rough diamonds, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, clothing and accessories, and textiles, and its main trade partners are Germany, The Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States, and Spain. Its main exports are automobiles, food and food products, iron and steel, diamonds, textiles, plastics, petroleum products, and nonferrous metals. Trade is made together with Luxembourg, since these two countries created a customs and currency union in 1922.


Main article: Demographics of Belgium

The population density, 336/km², is one of the highest in Europe, after the Netherlands and some smaller countries such as Monaco. The areas with the highest population density are around the Brussels-Antwerp-Ghent-Leuven agglomerations, as well as other important urban centres as Liège, Charleroi, Kortrijk, Brugge, Hasselt and Namur. The Ardennes have the lowest density.

Historically, Belgium has three ethnic communities: Flemings, Walloons and German-speakers, which belonged to Germany until 1918, and three official languages, one for each community, Dutch, French and German. More than half of the country is Dutch-speaking (+/-60%), French is the second most spoken language (+/- 40%) and German is spoken by less than 1% of the population, although these figures must be taken with care since the last linguistic census dated before 1960 and as mother tongue is not always the same as the language used in public, or in official life. This applies especially to the many minority goups who more or less kept their ethnic identity, the oldest being the Jews, established in Antwerp since the Middle Ages, and various more recent migrant communites as Italians, Spaniards, Poles, Turks or Moroccans. Within each of those communities, language use varies widely, with parts of each community maintaining their language of origin over generations, other parts moving towards the language of city of residence. Percentages differ widely between the different migrant groups.

Both the Dutch spoken in Belgium and the Belgian French have small vocabulary differences from the varieties spoken in the Netherlands and France, but are mutually intelligible with their respective neighbouring dialects. Many speak Flemish or Walloon dialects which are often difficult to understand for people from other areas. Other regional languages officially recognised (in Wallonia only) are Champenois, Gaumais, and Picard.

Brussels, the capital, is mostly French speaking, but officially French/Dutch bilingual as it evolved from a Dutch-speaking place when the Belgian state became independent in 1830 to its current dominantly French character being the capital of the central administration of the federal country that for a long time massively favoured French.

Over 98% of the adult population is literate. Education is obligatory from the age of 6 until the age of 18, but most Belgian students keep on studying until the age of 23. This makes Belgium's education system the second most intensive in Europe, after the UK's. Nevertheless, in recent years, concern is rising over certain forms of illiteracy as 'functional illiteracy'.


Main article: Religion of Belgium

In Belgium Roman Catholicism is the majority religion, accounting for between 75% and 80% of the population, although nowadays only about 10% to 20% of the population regularly goes to church. Other religions widely practised in Belgium are Islam, Protestantism, Anglicanism and Judaism.

Religion was one of the differences between the Roman Catholic south and the Protestant north of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, which eventually broke up in 1830 when the south seceded to form Belgium. This accounts for the preponderance of Catholics there nowadays.

Since 1830, Catholicism has had also an important role in Belgium's politics. One example is the two so-called "school wars" ("Schoolstrijd" in Dutch, "guerres scolaires" in French) between liberals and Catholics which took place between 1879 and 1884 and between 1954 and 1958 respectively.

Between World War I and World War II the centre of occult and mystical activity in Western Europe was shifted from France to Belgium. Belgium became the main centre for many esoteric brotherhoods and secret societies of which many branches still exist today.


Main article: Culture of Belgium

A discussion of Belgian culture may lead to discussing both those aspects of cultural life shared by 'all'Flemings" title ="Flemings">Flemings and the German-speaking community, viewed as more inclined towards Anglo-Saxon culture, and the French-speakers, viewed as more inclined towards French and other Latin cultures.

Cultural life tends to concentrate within each community. The shared element is clearly much less important as there are no common media, no universities that are both Flemish and French-speaking (except the royal military academy), and no single common large cultural or scientific organisation where both main communities are represented. Common organisations, in the wider social area, are only those institutions imposed by the Belgian legislator (as trade unions).

In terms of cultural life, nearly all members of all communities tend to make most individual and collective cultural choices first within their own community, and then, when going beyond, Flemings opting for a multi-polar interest, but mainly Anglo-Saxon towards culture (which dominates sciences, professional life and most news media), whereas French-speakers concentrate more on cultural life in Paris and elsewhere in the French-speaking world ('la Francité').

As for cultural generalities shared by all Belgians, the country is well known for its art, its great architecture, its beer, its food, and its chocolate. Belgium has a variety of famous artists. These include Peter Paul Rubens, René Magritte, Jan van Eyck, Breughel, Memling, Ensor, Delvaux. Magritte, together with Paul Delvaux, were two major artists of the surrealistic style. Many great French authors went to Belgium for refuge. In music Adolphe Sax is famous for inventing the saxophone in 1840.

In architecture Victor Horta is well known. He was one of the originators of the Art Nouveau architecture, a style of architecture which had a major impact upon 20th century buildings.

Belgium is well represented in the world of sport, football (soccer) being very popular. The national football team is called the Red Devils, and they are ranked as 24th by FIFA. However, Belgium also has two female tennis players in the top 20; Kim Clijsters (#4) and Justine Henin-Hardenne (#1).

Belgium has also performed well in cycling. One of the greatest cyclists ever, Eddy Merckx, who won 5 Tours de France, five Giro d'Italia, one Vuelta a España, two Tours of Belgium, and one Tour of Switzerland, was Belgian. Belgium has world champions in motocross, judo and table tennis.

Many gourmets think that Belgium has the best food in Europe. Brands of Belgian chocolate, like Neuhaus, Côte d'Or, Leonidas, Godiva are world renowned, the praline having been invented in Belgium. In Belgium there are over 450 different kinds of beer, those of the Trappist monks being the most prestigious. Technically, it is an ale and traditionally each abbey'French_fries" title ="French fries">french fries. The fried potato strips are sold at many small shops (called friteries or frietkoten) and stands (often at train stations) and are known locally as frieten in Dutch and frites in French, though never, ever as "french fries".

Related topics

External links

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