4.1 Mathematical foundations
Computer science encomposses a variety of topics relating to computation, ranging from abstract analysis of algorithms and formal grammars, to subjects like programming languages, software, and computer hardware.
Computer scientists study what programs can and cannot do (see computability), how programs can efficiently perform specific tasks (see algorithms and complexity), how programs should store and retrieve specific kinds of information (see data structures and data bases), how programs might behave intelligently (see artificial intelligence), and how programs and people should communicate with each other (see human-computer interaction and user interfaces).
Most research in computer science has focussed on von Neumann computers or Turing machines (computation models that perform one small, deterministic step at a time). These models resemble most real computers in use today. Computer scientists also study other models of computation, including parallel machines and theoretical models such as probabilistic, oracle, and quantum computers.
Edsger Dijkstra said:
- "Computer science is not as old as physics; it lags by a couple of hundred years. However, this does not mean that there is significantly less on the computer scientist's plate than on the physicist's: younger it may be, but it has had a far more intense upbringing!"
Computer science has roots in electrical engineering, mathematics and linguistics. In the last third of the 20th century computer science emerged as a distinct scientific discipline and developed its own methods and terminology. The first computer science department in the United States was founded at Purdue University in 1962. The University of Cambridge in England, among others, taught CS prior to this, however at the time, CS was seen as a branch of mathematics, and not a separate department. Cambridge claims to have the world's oldest taught qualification in computing. Most universities today have specific departments devoted to computer science.
Computer science is closely related to a number of fields. These fields overlap considerably, though important differences exist
- Computer engineering is the analysis, design, and construction of computer hardware.
- Computer programming or software development is the act of writing program code.
- Information science is the study of data and information, including how to interpret, analyze, store, and retrieve it. Information science started as the scientific foundation for communication and databases.
- Information security is the analysis and implementation of information system security, including cryptography.
- Information systems (IS) is the application of computing to support the operations of an organization: operating, installing, and maintaining the computers, software, and data.
- Lexicography focus on the study of lexicographic reference works and include the study of electronic and Internet-based dictionaries.
- Linguistics is the study of languages, converging with computer science in such areas as programming language design and natural language processing.
- Logic is a formal system of reasoning, and studies principles that lay at the very basis of computing/reasoning machines, whether it be the hardware (digital logic) or software (verification, AI etc.) levels.
- Management information systems (MIS) is a subfield of information systems, that emphasizes financial and personnel management.
- Mathematics shares many techniques and topics with computer science, but is more general. In some sense, CS is the mathematics of computing.
- Software engineering emphasizes analysis, design, construction, and testing of useful software. Software engineering includes development methodologies (such as the waterfall model and extreme programming) and project management.
Debate over name
There is some debate over whether the name of the field should be computer science, computation science, or software science. The first name is the original, traditional name, however it implies that CS studies computers. The second name is more recent, and it implies that CS studies what we do with computers. The third name recognizes that mostly the field studies software. Some view this debate over names as silly. Others see it as important symbolism.
Major fields of importance for computer science
- Boolean algebra
- Discrete mathematics
- Graph theory
- Information theory
- Mathematical logic
- Domain theory
- Probability and Statistics
Theoretical computer science
- Algorithmic information theory
- Computability theory
- Formal semantics
- Theory of computation (or theoretical computer science)
- Type theory
(see also electrical engineering)
- Control structures and Microprogramming
- Arithmetic and Logic structures
- Memory structures
- input/output and Data communications
- Logic Design
- Integrated circuits
- Performance and reliability
Computer systems organization
(see also electrical engineering)
- Computer architecture
- Computer networks
- Performance of systems
- Computer system implementation
- Computer program and Computer programming
- Programming techniques
- Software engineering
- Programming languages
- Operating Systems
Data and information systems
- Data structures
- Data storage representations
- Data encryption
- Data compression
- Data recovery
- Coding and Information theory
- Information systems
- Symbolic and Algebraic manipulation
- Artificial intelligence
- Computer graphics
- Image processing and computer vision
- Pattern recognition
- Simulation and Modeling
- Document and text processing
- Digital signal processing
- Administrative data processing
- Mathematical software
- Physical science and Engineering
- Life and medical sciences
- Social and behavioral sciences
- Arts and Humanities
- Computer-aided engineering
- Human-computer interaction
- Computer industry
- History of computing hardware
- Computers and education
- Computers and society
- Legal aspects of computing
- Management of computing and Information systems
- Personal computing
- Computer and information security
- History of computing
- Origins of computer terms
- Early programming projects
- Computer science departments
- Timeline of algorithms
Prominent pioneers in computer science
- Charles Babbage, for designing and building a prototype for a mechanical calculator and designing the more powerful Analytical Engine.
- John Backus, for inventing FORTRAN (Formula Translation), the first practical high-level programming language and formulating the Backus-Naur form for describing formal language syntax.
- Alonzo Church, for founding contributions to theoretical computer science, specifically for the development of the lambda calculus and the discovery of the undecidable problem within it.
- James W. Cooley and John W. Tukey, for the Fast Fourier Transform and its impact on scientific research.
- Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard, for inventing the proto-object oriented language SIMULA.
- Edsger Dijkstra, for algorithms, Goto considered harmful, the semaphore (programming), rigor, and pedagogy.
- C.A.R Hoare, for the development of the formal language Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) and Quicksort.
- Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, for pioneering work on the necessity for high-level programming languages, which she termed automatic programming, for writing the A-O compiler, and heavily influencing the COBOL language.
- Kenneth Iverson, for inventing the APL and for his contribution to interactive computing.
- Donald Knuth, for The Art of Computer Programming series.
- Ada Lovelace, for beginning the study of scientific computation, specifically for her "Sketch of the Analytical Engine", an analysis of Babbage's work and for the namesake for the modern computer language, Ada.
- John von Neumann, for devising the von Neumann architecture upon which most modern computers are based.
- Claude E. Shannon, for founding information theory.
- Alan Turing, for founding contributions to computer science, for the formulation of the Turing machine computational model, and for the design of the Pilot ACE.
- Maurice Wilkes, for building the first practical stored program computer to be completed and for being credited with the ideas of several high-level programming language constructs.
- Konrad Zuse for building a binary computer, for which he allegedly devised a theoretical high level programming language, Plankalk√ľl.
- List of basic computer science topics
- List of computing topics
- History of computing
- History of computing hardware
- Turing Award (ACM)
- IEEE John von Neumann Medal
- Computer jargon
- Computer slang
- Computing analogies
- Data acquisition
- Sensor network
- Online computations and algorithms
- Computer numbering formats
- List of publications in computer science
- List of open problems in computer science
- Women and Computer Science by Ellen Spertus
- Open Directory Project: Computer Science
- Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies
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