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Earth science

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Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth science. The major historic disciplines use physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system:

However, given the numerous interactions between the spheres many modern fields take an interdisciplinary approach and thus do not sit comfortably in this scheme:

  • Biogeochemistry follows the cycling of elements through the spheres mediated by biological and geological processes, and especially their distribution and fluxes between reservoirs.

Furthermore, other modern disciplines known collectively as Earth system science approach the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedbacks between constituent systems:

  • Meteorology describes, explains and predicts the weather based on the interaction of principally the ocean and atmosphere.
  • Climatology describes and explains the climate in terms of the interaction of the litho-, hydro-, atmo-, cryo-, and bio- spheres.
  • Gaia theories explain the behaviour of the Earth system in terms of the influence of the biosphere.

Like all other scientists, earth scientists apply the scientific method: formulate hypotheses after observation of and gathering data about natural phenomena and then test those hypotheses. In earth science, data usually plays a critical role in testing and formulating hypotheses. The systems approach, enabled by the combined use of computer models as hypotheses tested by global satellite and ship-board data, is increasingly giving scientists the ability to explain the past and possible future behaviour of the Earth system.


Partial list of the major Earth Science topics






Atmospheric Science

Systems or multidisciplinary

See also

bg:Науки за Земята bs:Geologija ca:Ciències De La Terra de:Geowissenschaften es:Ciencias de la tierra eo:Terscienco fa:علم زمین fr:Sciences de la Terre fy:Ierdwittenskip ko:지구과학 hi:पृथ्वी शास्त्र hr:Geologija it:Scienze della Terra he:מדעי כדור הארץ ms:Sains bumi nl:Aardwetenschappen ja:地球科学 pl:Nauki o Ziemi pt:Ciências da Terra ro:Ştiinţele Pământului sl:Znanosti o Zemlji tl:Agham ng mundo vi:Khoa học về đất zh-cn:地球科学 simple:Earth Science

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