Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. One of the fundamental goals of education is to impart culture across the generations (see socialization).
Education begins the minute a baby is born and continues throughout life. Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child'School" title ="School">schooling (thus Mark Twain'Family" title ="Family">Family members have an educational effect which is quite profound—often more profound than they realize—though family teaching may be highly informal.
Formal education occurs when society makes a commitment to educate people, usually the young. Formal education can be systematic and thorough, but the sponsoring group may seek selfish advantages when shaping impressionable young scholars.
Life-long or adult education has become widespread. Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. Many adults have given up the notion that only children belong in school. Many adults are enrolled in post-secondary education schools, both part-time and full-time, where they are often classified as "non-traditional students" in order to distinguish them administratively from young adults entering directly from high school. Computers are an increasingly essential element in education, both as a tool for online education (a kind of distance education), and as a way for individual students to access lessons and materials easily via the Internet and CD-ROM.
- Classical education – Reading – Math – Language – Science – Ethics – Physical education – Religious education– Music education– Environmental education
Challenges in education
In well-developed countries
- The entertaining world distracting the student's attention
- Program Evaluation Answering questions such as does education "work", or how to improve education.
- The contradiction between compulsory education and nurturing the concept of personal freedom in Western society.
- Over education and society's perception of it.
- Over emphasis on exam results versus student driven discovery and exploration of subjects.(The sausage machine analogy).
In developing countries
- Small incomes of teachers
- People unaware of the importance of education
- Economical pressure from those parents who prioritize their children's making money in the short term over any long-term benefits of education
- Program Evaluation
- Due to globalization, increased pressure on students in curricular activities.
- Removal of a certain percentage of students for improvisation of academics (usually practised in schools, after 10th grade).
- Lack of good universities, low acceptance rate for good universities (usually in overpopulated countries).
- Uniform overstructured inflexible centralized programs from a central agency that regulates all aspects of education in the country.
- Early childhood education – Primary education – Secondary education – Tertiary education – Quaternary education– Higher education – Vocational education – Post-secondary education – University – College – School – Further education
- Literacy – Testing & policy– Education reform – KERA – School choice – Charter schools – Meaningful student involvement – Student voice – Student Developed Education Policy – Social promotion
Informal and alternative education
- Early instruction – Home schooling – Unschooling – Lifelong education – Democratic Schools – Alternative school – Montessori method – Waldorf school – Online education – Distance education – Museum – Planetarium – Nature center – deschooling– political education – Gifted education – Rochdale College– autodidacticism
- United States Academic Decathlon – University Interscholastic League (UIL) – International science olympiad
Theory and methodology
- Philosophy of education – Teaching method – Instructional theory – Learning theory – Learning disability – Instructional technology – Education Psychology – Behaviorism – Problem-based learning – Active learning – Outcome-based education – Reggio Emilia approach – Cooperative education – collaborative learning – Dalton Plan – Transformative learning – experiential education – Situated learning – Adult education – Critical pedagogy – Institutional pedagogy – Pastoral care
Education by country
Education and parents
- Parents' Rights Coalition
- British Columbia Parents and Teachers for Life
- F. Matthias Alexander
- Catherine Baker
- Benjamin Bloom
- Garth Boomer
- Jim Cummins
- John Dewey
- Hermann Ebbinghaus
- Moshe Feldenkrais
- Paulo Freire
- Robert M. Gagne
- Howard Gardner
- John Taylor Gatto
- Ivan Illich
- Maria Montessori
- A.S. Neill
- Seymour Papert
- Helen Parkhurst
- Ivan Pavlov
- Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
- Alec Peterson
- Jean Piaget
- Neil Postman
- Emilia Reggio
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- B.F. Skinner
- Lev Vygotsky
- Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Education
- "The Encyclopedia of Informal Education"
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