Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. The study of linguistics can be thought of along three major axes, the endpoints of which are described below:
- Synchronic and diachronic -- Synchronic study of a language is concerned with its form at a given moment; diachronic study covers the history of a language (group) and its structural changes over time.
- Theoretical and applied -- Theoretical linguistics is concerned with frameworks for describing individual languages and theories about universal aspects of language; applied linguistics applies these theories to other fields.
- Contextual and independent -- Contextual linguistics is concerned with how language fits into the world: its social function, how it is acquired, how it is produced and perceived. Independent linguistics considers languages for their own sake, aside from the externalities related to a language. Terms for this dichotomy are not yet well established--the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica uses macrolinguistics and microlinguistics instead.
Given these dichotomies, scholars who call themselves simply linguists or theoretical linguists, with no further qualification, tend to be concerned with independent, theoretical synchronic linguistics, which is acknowledged as the core of the discipline.
"Linguistics is arguably the most hotly contested property in the academic realm. It is soaked with the blood of poets, theologians, philosophers, philologists, psychologists, biologists, and neurologists, along with whatever blood can be got out of grammarians." 1
Areas of theoretical linguistics
Theoretical linguistics is often divided into a number of separate areas, to be studied more or less independently. The following divisions are currently widely acknowledged:
- Phonetics, the study of the different sounds that are employed across all human languages
- Phonology, the study of patterns of a language's basic sounds
- Morphology, the study of the internal structure of words
- Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences
- Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences;
- Stylistics, the study of style in languages
- Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used (literally, figuratively, or otherwise) in communicative acts
- Linguistic Typology, the study of the grammatical features that are employed across all human languages
- Historical linguistics, the study of languages whose historical relations are recognizable through similarities in vocabulary, word formation, and syntax.
The independent significance of each of these areas is not universally acknowledged, however, and nearly all linguists would agree that the divisions overlap considerably. Nevertheless, each subarea has core concepts that foster significant scholarly inquiry and research.
Whereas the core of theoretical linguistics is concerned with studying languages at a particular point in time (usually the present), diachronic linguistics examines how language changes through time, sometimes over centuries. Historical linguistics enjoys both a rich history (the study of linguistics grew out of historical linguistics) and a strong theoretical foundation for the study of language change.
In American universities, the non-historic perspective seems to have the upper hand. Many introductory linguistics classes, for example, cover historical linguistics only cursorily. The shift in focus to a non-historic perspective started with Saussure and became predominant with Noam Chomsky.
Whereas theoretical linguistics is concerned with finding and describing generalities both within languages and among all languages, as a group, applied linguistics takes the results of those findings and applies them to other areas. Usually applied linguistics refers to the use of linguistic research in language teaching, but linguistics is used in other areas, as well. Speech synthesis and Speech recognition, for example, use linguistic knowledge to provide voice interfaces to computers.
Contextual linguistics is that realm where linguistics interacts with other academic disciplines. Whereas core theoretical linguistics studies languages for their own sake, the interdisciplinary areas of linguistic consider how language interacts with the rest of the world. But that rather depends upon their world-view.
Individual speakers, language communities, and linguistic universals
Linguists also differ in how broad a group of language users they study. Some analyze a given speaker'Speech_community" title ="Speech community">speech community, such as the language of all those who speak Black English Vernacular. Others try to find linguistic universals that apply, at some abstract level, to all users of human language everywhere. This latter project has been most famously advocated by Noam Chomsky, and it interests many people in psycholinguistics and cognitive science. It is thought that universals in human language may reveal important insight into universals about the human mind.
Prescription and description
- Main article: Prescription and description.
Most work currently done under the name "linguistics" is purely descriptive; the linguists seek to clarify the nature of language without passing value judgments or trying to chart future language directions. Nonetheless, there are many professionals and amateurs who also prescribe rules of language, holding a particular standard out for all to follow.
Whereas prescriptivists might want to stamp out what they perceive as "incorrect usage", descriptivists seek to find the root of such usage; they might describe it simply as "idiosyncratic", or they may discover a regularity that the prescriptivists don't like because it is perhaps too new or from a dialect they don't approve of.
Speech versus writing
- Speech appears to be a human universal, whereas there are and have been many cultures that lack written communication;
- People learn to speak and process oral language more easily and earlier than writing;
- A number of cognitive scientists argue that the brain has an innate "language module", knowledge of which is thought to come more from studying speech than writing.
Of course, linguists agree that that the study of written language can be worthwhile and valuable. For linguistic research that uses the methods of corpus linguistics and computational linguistics, written language is often much more convenient for processing large amounts of linguistic data. Large corpuses of spoken language are difficult to create and hard to find.
Furthermore, the study of writing systems themselves falls under the aegis of linguistics.
Research areas of linguistics
phonetics, phonology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, etymology, lexicology, lexicography, theoretical linguistics, historical-comparative linguistics and descriptive linguistics, linguistic typology, computational linguistics, corpus linguistics, semiotics.
Interdisciplinary linguistic research
applied linguistics, historical linguistics, orthography, writing systems, comparative linguistics, cryptanalysis, decipherment, sociolinguistics, critical discourse analysis, psycholinguistics, language acquisition, evolutionary linguistics, anthropological linguistics, stratificational linguistics, text linguistics, cognitive science, neurolinguistics, and in computational linguistics there is natural language understanding, speech recognition, speaker recognition (authentication), speech synthesis, and more generally, speech processing
Important linguists and schools of thought
Early scholars of linguistics include Jakob Grimm, who devised the principle of consonantal shifts in pronunciation known as Grimm's Law in 1822, Karl Verner, who discovered Verner's Law, August Schleicher who created the "Stammbaumtheorie" and Johannes Schmidt who developed the "Wellentheorie" ("wave model") in 1872. Ferdinand de Saussure was the founder of modern structural linguistics. Noam Chomsky's formal model of language, transformational-generative grammar, developed under the influence of his teacher Zellig Harris, who was in turn strongly influenced by Leonard Bloomfield, has been the dominant one from the 1960s.
Other important linguists and schools include Michael Halliday, whose systemic functional grammar is pursued widely in the U.K., Canada, Australia, China, and Japan; Dell Hymes, who developed a pragmatic approach called The Ethnography of Speaking; George Lakoff, Leonard Talmy, and Ronald Langacker, who were pioneers in cognitive linguistics; Charles Fillmore and Adele Goldberg, who are associated with construction grammar; and linguists developing several varieties of what they call functional grammar, including Talmy Givon and Robert Van Valin, Jr..
Representation of speech
- International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a system used to write down and reproduce the sounds of human speech.
- SAMPA, an ASCII-only transcription for the IPA used by some authors. See also the SAMPA home page.
Narrower conceptions of "linguistics"
"Linguistics" and "linguist" may not always be meant to apply as broadly as above. In some contexts, the best definitions may be "what is studied in a typical university'Professor" title ="Professor">professor in such a department." Linguistics in this narrow sense usually does not refer to learning to speak foreign languages (except insofar as this helps to craft formal models of language.) It does not include literary analysis. Only sometimes does it include study of things such as metaphor. It probably does not apply to those engaged in such prescriptive efforts as found in Strunk and White's The Elements of Style; "linguists" usually seek to study what people do, not what they should do. One could probably argue for a long while about who is and who is not a "linguist".
- List of linguists
- History of linguistics
- Linguistics basic topics, a page designed to organize information about linguistics on Wikipedia
- List of linguistic topics
- Philology, the study of ancient texts and languages.
- O'Grady, W. et. al. (2001). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. New York, Bedford/St. Martins.
- Akmajian, A. et. al. (1979). Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. Cambridge, MIT Press.
- Schmid, H. J. et. al. (1996). An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics. New York, Longman.
- Lyons, J. (1996). Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction. New York, Cabridge University Press.
- Geoffrey Sampson: "Schools of Linguistics.", Hutchinson, London (1980), ISBN 0804710848
- Rymer, p. 48, quoted in Fauconnier and Turner, p. 353)
- Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. Basic Books.
- Fauconnoier, Gilles, (1994). Mentalm Spaces:Aspects of meaning construction in natural language. Cambridge, Cambridge Unuversity Press.
- Fauconnier, Gilles. (1997). Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge, cambridge University Press.
- Taylor, J. R. (2002). Cognitive Grammar. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
- Sweetser, E. E. (1997). From Etymology to Pragmatics:Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure.
- Steven Pinker,(1995).The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York, Harper Perrenial.
- Pinker, Steven. (1999). Words and Rules: The Ingrediants of Language. New York, Perrenial.
- Rymer, Russ (1992). "Annals of Science: A Silent Childhood-I". New Yorker, April 13.
- Deacon, T. W. (1998). The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and Brain. New York, W. w. Norton & Co.
- Arnoff, M. et. al., Ed. (2003). The Handbook of Linguistics. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Malden, Massachusetts, Blackwell Publishers.
- Malmkaer, K., Ed. (1995). The Linguistics Encyclopedia. Language Titles. New York, Routledgw.
- Skeat, W. W. (1993). Concise Dictionary of English Etymology. Hertfordshire, Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
- Multilingual Morphology Software
- Grammar Book
- Automated word analysis for the German language
- Syllabification algorithm
- The hyphenation block
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