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Serbia and Montenegro

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Serbia and Montenegro is the name of the union of Serbia and Montenegro, two former Yugoslav republics joined together into a loose union. It is located on the west-central Balkan Peninsula.

Serbia and Montenegro came to an agreement only to cooperate in some political fields (e.g. a defence union). The states have their own economic policies and currencies. Serbia and Montenegro does not have a unified capital any more. Though most institutions are in Belgrade, some are in Podgorica.

The temporary Constitutional charter was adopted on February 4, 2003, in the Skupstina. Each of the two states may seek full independence via a referendum to be held in 2006.


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Државна заједница Србија и Црна Гора
Državna zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora
Flag 100px
(In detail, with new flag info) (Full size)
image:LocationSerbiaAndMontenegro.png
Official language Serbian written in Cyrillic and Latin alphabets 1
Capital Belgrade2
President3 Svetozar Marović
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 105th
102,350 km²
0.25%
Population
 - Total (2000)
 - Density
Ranked 70th
10,662,087
104/km²
Currency In Serbia the Serbian dinar (exception: in Kosovo the euro), in Montenegro the euro
Time zone
 - in summer
CET (UTC+1)
CEST (UTC+2)
National anthem Hej Sloveni
Internet TLD .yu still used (.cs reserved)
Airline carriers Jat Airways and Montenegro Airlines
Calling Code 381
1 More languages are official at various local levels.
2Court of Serbia and Montenegro is in Podgorica
3Also Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Contents

History

Main articles: History of Serbia and Montenegro, History of Yugoslavia

Upon its creation in 1992, the United Nations, and many individual states (especially the United States) had refused to recognise the remaining confederation of Serbia and Montenegro as the continuation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, although they accepted it as constituting a state. This was due to the ongoing Yugoslav wars, which had prevented agreement being reached on the disposition of federal assets and liabilities, particularly the national debt. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was finally re-admitted to the United Nations in 2000 after several years of suspension.

In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement regarding continued co-operation, which, among other changes, promised the end of the name Yugoslavia. On February 4, 2003, the federal parliament of Yugoslavia created a loose commonwealth of Serbia and Montenegro called Serbia and Montenegro.

Political divisions

Main article: Internal structure of Serbia and Montenegro

Economy

Main article: Economy of Serbia and Montenegro

Mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia'Kosovo_War" title ="Kosovo War">Kosovo War have left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. Since the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the International Monetary Fund in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country'Paris_Club" title ="Paris Club">Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001; it will write off 66% of the debt; a similar debt relief agreement on its $2.8 billion London Club commercial debt has been reached in July 2004; 62% of the debt have been written off.

The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the Milosevic era. Now both republics have separate central banks, different currencies - Montenegro uses the euro, while Serbia uses the Serbian dinar as official currency. The two states also have different customs tariffs, separate state budgets, police forces, governments.

The southern Serbian province of Kosovo, while technically still part of Serbia (according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244), is moving toward local autonomy under the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is dependent on the international community for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are official currencies, and UNMIK collects taxes and manages the budget. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, and stagnation in the European economy are holding back the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem.

Transportation

Main article: Transportation in Serbia and Montenegro

Map
Map of Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia, and in particular the valley of Morava is often described as "the crossroad between the East and the West", which is one of primary reasons for its turbulent history. The valley is by far the easiest way of land travel from continental Europe to Greece and Asia Minor.

Major international highways going through Serbia are E75 and E70. E763/E761 is the most important route connecting Serbia with Montenegro.

The Danube, an important international waterway, flows through Serbia.

The largest sea harbour is Montenegro'Bar%2C_Serbia_and_Montenegro" title ="Bar, Serbia and Montenegro">Bar.

Miscellaneous topics

External link


Flag of Serbia and Montenegro State Union Serbia and Montenegro Flag of Serbia Flag of Montenegro

Republics: Serbia | Montenegro

Autonomous provinces of Serbia: Kosovo and Metohija | Vojvodina

 


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Dependencies: Faroe Islands | Gibraltar | Guernsey | Jan Mayen | Jersey | Isle of Man | Svalbard


bg:Сърбия и Черна гора ca:Sèrbia i Montenegro cy:Serbia a Montenegro da:Serbien og Montenegro de:Serbien und Montenegro et:Serbia ja Montenegro es:Serbia y Montenegro eo:Serbio kaj Montenegro fr:Serbie-et-Monténégro hr:Srbija i Crna Gora he:סרביה ומונטנגרו minnan:Srbija kap O·-soaⁿ nl:Servië en Montenegro ja:セルビア・モンテネグロ lt:Serbija ir Juodkalnija no:Serbia og Montenegro nds:Serbien un Montenegro pl:Serbia i Czarnogóra pt:Sérvia e Montenegro ro:Serbia şi Muntenegru ru:Сербия и Черногория sk:Srbsko a Čierna Hora sl:Srbija in Črna gora sr:Србија и Црна Гора fi:Serbia ja Montenegro sv:Serbien och Montenegro uk:Сербія і Чорногорія zh-cn:塞尔维亚和黑山

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