The Republic of Slovenia (Slovenian: Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in south central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north.
Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia from 1945 until gaining independence in 1991. It became a member of the European Union on 1 May 2004. It is also a member of the Council of Europe, NATO, and has observer status in La Francophonie.
|National motto: None|
|Prime Minister||Janez Janša|
- % water
|Ranked 150th |
- Total (2003)
- Total (2003)
|Ranked 57th, 42th, 31th|
31.868 Billion USD
33,000 USD (PPP)
16,275 USD (Nominal)
25 June 1991
- in summer
|¹ in the residential municipalities of Italian or Hungarian national community.|
Main article: History of Slovenia
It is believed that the Slavic ancestors of the present-day Slovenians settled in the area in the 6th century. The Slavic Duchy of Carantania, the first Slovenian state and the first stable Slavic state, was formed in the 7th century. In 745, Carantania lost its independence, being largely subsumed into the Frankish empire. Many Slavs converted to Christianity.
The Freising manuscripts, the first written documents in Slovenian and the first ever Slavic dialect documents in Latin script, were written around 1000. During the 14th century, most of Slovenia'Habsburg" title ="Habsburg">Habsburgs whose lands later formed the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with Slovenians inhabiting all or most of the provinces of Carniola, Gorizia and Gradisca, and parts of the provinces of Istria and Styria.
In 1848 a strong programme for a United Slovenia emerged as part of the "Spring of Nations" movement within Austria-Hungary.
With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918, Slovenians joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed, in 1929, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II, Slovenia became a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, officially declared on 29 November 1945. Present-day Slovenia was formed on 25 June 1991 upon its independence from the Yugoslavia. Slovenia joined NATO on 29 March 2004 and the European Union on 1 May 2004.
See also (a non-academic) Timeline of Slovenian history
Main article: Politics of Slovenia
The Slovenian head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote every 5 years. The executive branch is headed by the prime minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, which are elected by the parliament.
The bicameral Slovenian parliament consists of the National Assembly or Državni zbor, and the Državni svet or National Council. The National Assembly has 90 seats, which are partially filled with directly elected representatives, and partially with proportionally elected representatives. The National Council has 22 seats, and is made up of representatives of social, economic, professional and local interest groups. Parliamentary elections are held every four years.
- Upper Carniola (Gorenjska)
- Styria (Štajerska)
- Mur Region (Prekmurje) (or Transmuraland)
- Carinthia (Koroška)
- Inner Carniola (Notranjska)
- Lower Carniola (Dolenjska)
- White Carniola (Bela krajina)
- Littoral Region (Primorska)
Main article: Municipalities of Slovenia
Slovenia is divided into 193 municipalities (občine, singular - občina), of which 11 have urban status.
Main article: Geography of Slovenia
Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinaric area, the Pannonian plain, the Karst region and the Mediterranean. Slovenia'Triglav" title ="Triglav">Mt. Triglav (2864 m); the country'Finland" title ="Finland">Finland and Sweden. Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Grassland covers 5593 km² of the country and fields and gardens 2471 km². There are also 363 km² of orchards and 216 km² of vineyards.
Its climate is Mediterranean on the coast, Alpine in the mountains and continental with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east. The average temperatures are -2Â°C in January and 21Â°C in July. The average rainfall is 1000 mm for the coast, up to 3500 mm for the Alps, 800 mm for south east and 1400 mm for central Slovenia.
See also: National parks of Slovenia.
Main article: Economy of Slovenia
Slovenia continues to enjoy the highest GDP per capita of the transitioning economies of the region. The country is experiencing an increased, yet manageable, rate of inflation and anticipates increased GDP growth during the year 2000 as growth accelerates in the EU, Slovenia'Privatisation" title ="Privatisation">privatisation and capital market reform.
During 2000, privatisations were seen in the banking, telecommunications, and public utility sectors. Restrictions on foreign investment are slowly being dismantled, and foreign direct investment (FDI) is expected to increase over the next two years. Slovenia can be considered one of the economic front-runners of the countries that joined the European Union in 2004.
Main article: Demographics of Slovenia
Slovenia'Slovenians" title ="Slovenians">Slovenians (89%), Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks and other nationalities of the former Yugoslavia (10%) and the ethnic Hungarian and Italian minorities (0.5%). Life expectancy in 2000 was 71.80 years for men and 79.50 years for women.
With 95 inhabitants per km², Slovenia ranks low among the European countries (compare with 320/km² for the Netherlands or 195/km² for Italy). Approximately 50% of the total population lives in urban areas, the rest in rural.
The official language is Slovenian, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. Hungarian and Italian enjoy the status of official language in the nationally mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian border.
Main article: Culture of Slovenia
- Communications in Slovenia
- Transportation in Slovenia
- Military of Slovenia
- Foreign relations of Slovenia
- Bank of Slovenia
- Tourism in Slovenia
- Geometric center of Slovenia (Geoss)
- Coast of Slovenia
- The Government
- Matkurja - a general internet site on Slovenia
- Najdi.si - another general internet site
- A guide to Virtual Slovenia
- The Jožef Stefan Institute's - resources on Slovenia
- Public Libraries
- University of Ljubljana
- University of Maribor
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
- Bank of Slovenia
- Slovenia tourism homepage
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